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Sixty Six million years ago, a star, the Hogskull Hammer, gradually approached the neighborhood of our sun. Sometime in that time frame, when it was about four light years away, it became the sun's closest stellar companion. Our sun had just crossed the plane of the galaxy heading below the celestial equator. At the same time, the Hammer was crossing the plane heading above the galactic equator. Both were traveling in the same counter-clockwise elliptical path around the Milky Way.
Our sun takes 230 million years to make one revolution of the Milky Way Galaxy. During that trip, the sun oscillates in a thirty million year cycle. Above for thirty million years and then below the plane for thirty million more. At the peak of its cycles, the sun reaches 18 light years above and 18 below the galactic plane. It has been doing this for over twenty revolutions around the Milky way. Ever since the sun was born, some five billion years ago.
The Hogskull Hammer has been circling the galaxy in the same direction as the sun only the oscillating cycle is 180 degrees different. It could have been born at the same time from the same cloud of stellar material. Or it could be older and when it went by this cloud five billion years ago, the shock wave of its passing caused the cloud to begin condensing. If this is the case, then the Hogskull Hammer could be called the father of the sun.
Both travel around the galactic core at a distance of 35,000 light years, roughly two-thirds of the radius of the Milky Way. They have been crossing paths about eight times per revolution and 20 revolutions make for 160 times that these two stars system have passed each other like trains in the night.
The Hogskull Hammer could be, and probably is, a multiple star system. The two star system came closer and closer to our sun. Their gravity caused perturbations in both star's solar systems. This time, a smaller brown companion star of the Hogskull Hammer was on the side closest to our sun only one light year away. The Oort Clouds of each intermingled. Some of our sun's comets were captured by the secondary star and a few were captured by the primary star. By the same token, some of their comets were captured by our sun. But thousands were nudged out of their distant orbits and began the long journey inward toward the three stars.
One of these comet’s rock-icy core was six miles in diameter. Every second it fell toward the sun it picked up speed. By the time it was 93,000,000 miles from the sun, it was traveling 140,000 miles per hour. No one knows how many times it orbited the sun. Making a near miss of the earth and then retreating out past the orbit of Jupiter and then falling in toward the sun again. Nearly all the comets missed the earth and were captured either by the sun or one of the giant gaseous planets. A few may have gained enough speed to retreat back to a stable orbit in the Oort Cloud.
It is also possible that this comet was on a collision course with the Earth on its very first trip in from the near absolute zero temperature of the outer Oort Cloud. It had spent five billion years in the Oort Cloud and only a few millennia inward of Pluto's orbit.
This comet met its end at the Yucatan Peninsula.
Thirty six million years ago in the late Eocene Period, the two stars crossed paths again. Our sun, was going up and over the plane while the other star system was going below. The disruption of the Oort Cloud caused another shower of comets resulting in a 50 mile diameter crater near Washington D.C. and a 60 mile crater in Northern Siberia.
Another small extinction occurred in the middle of the Cretaceous period 91 million year ago. The 30 million year cycle would have this happening 95 to 96 million years ago.
200 million years ago! End of the Triassic. First period of the Mesozoic era. Fourth mass extinction. 60 mile crater in Canada, Lake Manicuagan. Works out fine on a 33 year cycle. (6 X33=198)
250 million years ago. End of Paleozoic era. Third mass extinction. Most violent! Close enough on a 31 year cycle(8X31=248)
365 million years ago. End of Devonian. Second mass extinction. This works fine on a 30.5-year cycle. (12X30.5=366)
450 million! End of Ordovician period. Oldest known mass extinction. This works fine on a 30 year cycle. (15X30=450)
If this is true about the Hogskull Hammer, there is no reason to believe that there is only one Hammer star. A larger star would have a longer and higher oscillating cycle. A smaller star should have a shorter and lower cycle.
More likely, other stars may travel around the core in highly elliptical orbits, coming close to our sun only once or twice in a billion years. These stars would fall in toward the core like comets toward our sun. They would circle the core and then speed out to the galactic rim, 50,000 light years away.